Supplementary Lecture Notes: After Test 1

        й 2013-19 Imants BaruЪs

    A note about these "Supplementary Lecture Notes"

Please note that these "Supplementary Lecture Notes" are supplementary in that the textbook itself is actually the "lecture notes" (that happened to get published as a book). So these notes are not meant to replace the textbook. What you will find here is a list of the topices that are covered in each class (usually just a list of the sections of the textbook), a summary of some of the material that is covered in class that is not in the textbook, and some references to the material that is not in the textbook.


In this class, I say a little bit about two psychodynamic personality theories that will help us to understand some of the material in this course and, in particular, dream theories that we will discuss next week.


Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis
Roberto Assagioli's psychosynthesis

    Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalysis

This is a diagram that I came up with for explaining Freud's psychodynamic theory. In this diagram we have the three elements of the psyche: the id, ego, and superego. Eros and Thanatos are creative and destructive forces at work in the id. Primary process thinking is the type of thinking used by the id whereas secondary process thinking is the type of thinking used by the ego. Consciousness is the attention-dispensing function of the ego. The ego is caught between the forces of the id, superego, and reality. Dreams are productions of the ego whose unacceptable elements are blocked by an unconscious part of the ego called the censor. Through dream work the id changes the unacceptable contents into symbolic form so as to fool the censor and push the contents into the dream.

    Roberto Assagioli's Psychosynthesis

The following is Roberto Assagioli's egg diagram illustrating the elements of the psyche:

    1. Subconscious (the past, biological urges, conditioning)
    2. Preconscious (that of which we can be aware if we attend to it)
    3. Superconscious (the future, our latent potential, spiritual aspects of a person)
    4. Field of Consciousness (that of which we are aware)
    5. Personal Self (the subjective stillpoint from which we act at the personality level)
    6. Higher Self (a deeper aspect of the self that is inherently linked to all other selves)
    7. Collective Unconscious (shared "atmosphere" of psychological material)

Please see also pages 40 to 41 in the textbook.

I will say a little bit about the will, using the following PowerPoint slides:


Assagioli, R. (1973). The act of will. New York: Penguin Books.
Ferrucci, P. (1982). What we may be: Techniques for psychological and spiritual growth through psychosynthesis. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.
Ferrucci, P. (2014). Your inner will: Finding personal strength in critical times. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher.